Simplified process to produce margarines with reduced saturated fatty acids using vegetable wax organogels

Kamila Ferreira Chaves, Júlio Cesar Barbosa Rocha, Daniel Barrera Arellano


The need to reduce the amount of dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA), made the search for replacements for these fats a very important field for research. At the search for such replacements the organogel technology has shown great potential. This study had the objective of produce reduced SFA margarines using organogel technology to structure vegetable oils. A laboratory scale process (1kg batch) were performed the margarines were produced using 80% of lipid phase (LP) and their fatty acid composition, spreadability, hardness and thermal stability were evaluated and compared to commercial samples of margarines ranging from 70 to 82% (LP). A experimental design were used to achieve a product similar to the commercial product. Using the analysis of the response surfaces it was possible to observe that the measured spreadability ranged from 0.44 up to 11.12 kg.s for the tested margarines, and from 2.46 to 3.63 kg.s for the commercial samples respectively. 0.35 up to 7.37 kg from for the consistency (1.89 – 2.78 kg for commercial samples) and 1.23 up to 35.97 N for hardness (5.78 – 7.84 N for commercial samples), based on such results a optimized formulation were produced using soybean oil and high oleic sunflower oil to achieve the same properties as the commercial products. In conclusion, it was possible to produce margarines, using organogels for oil structuring.


Margarine; Emulsion; Candelilla wax; Saturated fatty acids.

Full Text:



Alvarez-Mitre, F. M., Morales-Rueda, J. A., Dibildox-Alvarado, E., Charó-Alonso, M. A., & Toro-Vazquez, J. F. (2012). Shearing as a variable to engineer the rheology of candelilla wax organogels. Food Research International, 49(1), 580–587.

Bergman, R. N., & Ader, M. (2000). Free fatty acids and pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM, 11(9), 351–356.

Box, G. E. P., & Behnken, D. W. (1960). Some New Three Level Designs for the Study of Quantitative Variables. Technometrics, 2(4), 455–475.

Calligaris, S., Manzocco, L., Valoppi, F., & Nicoli, M. C. (2013). Effect of palm oil replacement with monoglyceride organogel and hydrogel on sweet bread properties. Food Research International, 51(2), 596–602.

Chrysan, M. M. (2005). Margarines and Spreads. In F. Shahidi (Ed.), Bailey’s Industrial Oil and Fat Products (6th ed., pp. 33–82). John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Dassanayake, L. S. K., Kodali, D. R., Ueno, S., & Sato, K. (2009). Physical Properties of Rice Bran Wax in Bulk and Organogels. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 86(12), 1163–1173.

Garcia, R. K. A., Moreira Gandra, K., & Barrera-Arellano, D. (2013). Development of a zero trans margarine from soybean-based interesterified fats formulated using artificial neural networks. Grasas y Aceites, 64(5), 521–530.

Hartmann, L., & Lago, R. C. (1973). Rapid preparation of fatty acid methyl esters from lipids. Laboratory Practices, 22(8), 475–476.

Hernandez, E., & Baker, R. a. (1991). Candelilla Wax Emulsion, Preparation and Stability. Journal of Food Science, 56(5), 1382–1383.

Hwang, H.-S., Singh, M., Bakota, E. L., Winkler-Moser, J. K., Kim, S., & Liu, S. X. (2013). Margarine from Organogels of Plant Wax and Soybean Oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 90(11), 1705–1712.

Kemeny, Z., Recseg, K., Henon, G., Kovari, K., & Zwobada, F. (2001). Deodorization of vegetable oils: prediction of trans polyunsaturated fatty acid content. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 78(9), 973–979.

Manzocco, L., Calligaris, S., Da Pieve, S., Marzona, S., & Nicoli, M. C. (2012). Effect of monoglyceride-oil–water gels on white bread properties. Food Research International, 49(2), 778–782.

Morales-Rueda, J. A., Dibildox-Alvarado, E., Charó-Alonso, M. A., & Toro-Vazquez, J. F. (2009). Rheological Properties of Candelilla Wax and Dotriacontane Organogels Measured with a True-Gap System. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 86(8), 765–772.

Rocha, J. C. B. (2012). Obtenção e caracterização de organogéis de óleo de soja preparados com cera de cana-de-açúcar e suas frações. Universidade Estadual de Campinas.

Rocha, J. C. B., Lopes, J. D., Mascarenhas, M. C. N., Arellano, D. B., Guerreiro, L. M. R., & da Cunha, R. L. (2013). Thermal and rheological properties of organogels formed by sugarcane or candelilla wax in soybean oil. Food Research International, 50(1), 318–323.

Roche, H. M., Phillips, C., & Gibney, M. J. (2007). The metabolic syndrome: the crossroads of diet and genetics. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 64(03), 371–377.

Rogers, M. A., Wright, A. J., & Marangoni, A. G. (2009a). Oil organogels: the fat of the future? Soft Matter, 5(8), 1594.

Rogers, M. A., Wright, A. J., & Marangoni, A. G. (2009b). Corrigendum to “Nanostructuring fiber morphology and solvent inclusions in 12-hydroxystearic acid/canola oil organogels” [Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science 14(1) (2009) 33–42]. Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, 14(3), 223.

Sanibal, E. A. A., & Mancini-Filho, J. (2004). Perfil de ácidos graxos trans de óleo de gordura hidrogenada de soja no processo de fritura. Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos, 24(1), 27–31.

Sundram, K., Karupaiah, T., & Hayes, K. (2007). No Title. Nutrition & Metabolism, 4(1), 3.

Toro-Vazquez, J. F., Morales-Rueda, J. A., Dibildox-Alvarado, E., Charó-Alonso, M., Alonzo-Macias, M., & González-Chávez, M. M. (2007). Thermal and Textural Properties of Organogels Developed by Candelilla Wax in Safflower Oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 84(11), 989–1000.

Woodside, J. V., & Kromhout, D. (2007). Fatty acids and CHD. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 64(04), 554–564.

Yilmaz, E., & Öğütcü, M. (2015). Oleogels as spreadable fat and butter alternatives: sensory description and consumer perception. RSC Advances, 5(62), 50259–50267.

Zevenbergen, H., de Bree, a, Zeelenberg, M., Laitinen, K., van Duijn, G., & Flöter, E. (2009). Foods with a high fat quality are essential for healthy diets. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism, 54 Suppl 1(suppl 1), 15–24.

Zulim Botega, D. C., Marangoni, A. G., Smith, A. K., & Goff, H. D. (2013). The potential application of rice bran wax oleogel to replace solid fat and enhance unsaturated fat content in ice cream. Journal of Food Science, 78(9), C1334-9.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Base de Dados e Indexadores: Base, Diadorim,, DOI Crossref, Dialnet, Scholar Google, Redib, Doaj, Latindex, Redalyc, Portal de Periódicos CAPES

Research, Society and Development - ISSN 2525-3409

Licença Creative Commons
Este obra está licenciado com uma Licença Creative Commons Atribuição 4.0 Internacional

Rua Irmã Ivone Drumond, 200 - Distrito Industrial II, Itabira - MG, 35903-087 (Brasil)