Dynamics of defoliation of associated grasses

Patrick Bezerra Fernandes, Rodrigo Amorim Barbosa, Maria da Graça Morais, Cauby de Medeiros-Neto, André Fischer Sbrissia, Henrique Jorge Fernandes, Gelson dos Santos Difante

Abstract


The behavior of variables related to defoliation dynamics was evaluated, and their respective oscillations in two intercropping of tropical climate grasses managed under two grazing intensities. We used pastures formed with two intercropping (BRS Zuri, Xaraés and Basilisk; BRS Quênia, Marandu and BRS Paiaguás), managed in two grazing intensities: 40 and 60% of the pre-grazing height. In the consortium between BRS Zuri, Xaraés and Basilisk, the first canonical variable explained 72.1 and 79.2% of the total variation of the defoliation pattern for the grazing intensity levels of 40 and 60%. In the consortium between BRS Quênia, Marandu and BRS Paiaguás, the first canonical variable explained 84.3 and 89.0% of the total variation of the defoliation pattern for the grazing intensity levels of 40 and 60%. The choice of forage species of tropical climate to form the consortium may be decisive in order to perpetuate plant diversity. From the population density of tillers, it is possible to observe that grasses belonging to functional groups A and B (Zuri, Xaraés, BRS Quênia and Marandu) have a higher probability of coexisting in the same area. The choice of forage species for the establishment of intercropped pastures is important to ensure the coexistence between them and the persistence of the consortium. The analysis of canonical variables assists in explaining the dynamics of defoliation of intercropping through the estimates of severity and frequency of defoliation of extended tiller and pseudostem.


Keywords


Frequency of defoliation; Pre-grazing; Pseudostem; Severity of defoliation.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Almeida, R. E. M.; Gomes, C. M., Lago, B. C., Oliveira, S. M., Junior, C. P., & Favarin, J. L (2017)). Produtividade de milho, produção e qualidade de forragem afetadas pelos métodos de consórcio do milho com Panicum maximum. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 52(3), 170-176. doi: 10.1590/S0100-204X2017000300004.

Barbosa, R. A., Medeiro-Neto, C. D., Zimmer, A. H., Macedo, M. C. M., Fernandes, P. B., & Sbrissia, A. F. 2018. Alternativas para o estabelecimento de consórcios de gramíneas tropicais. Embrapa Gado de Corte Comunicado Técnico, 147(1) 1-19.

Baumont, R., Cohen-Salmon, D., Prache, S., & Sauvant, D. (2004). A mechanistic model of intake and grazing behaviour in sheep integrating sward architecture and animal decisions. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 112(2004), 5-28. doi: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2003.10.005.

Beloni, T., Santos, P. M., Rovadoscki, G. A., Balachowski, J., & Volaire, F. (2018). Large variability in drought survival among Urochloa spp. cultivars. Grass and Forage Science, 73(4), 947-957. doi: 10.1111/gfs.12380.

Benvenutti, M. A., Gordon, I. J., Poppi, D. P., Crowther, R., Spinks, W., & Moreno, F. C. (2009). The horizontal barrier effect of stems on the foraging behaviour of cattle grazing five tropical grasses. Livestock Science, 126(2009), 229-238. doi: 10.1016/j.livsci.2009.07.006

Braz, T. G. D. S., Martuscello, J. A., Jank, L., Fonseca, D. M. D., Resende, M. D. V., & Evaristo, A. B. (2017). Genotypic value in hybrid progenies of Panicum maximum Jacq. Ciência Rural, 47(9), e20160599. doi: 10.1590/0103-8478cr20160599

Carvalho, P. C. F. (2013). Harry Stobbs Memorial Lecture: Can grazing behavior support innovations in grassland management?. Tropical Grasslands-Forrajes Tropicales, 2(1), 137-155. 10.17138/TGFT(1)137-155

Castagnara, D. D., Zoz, T., Krutzmann, A., Uhlein, A., Mesquita, E. E., Neres, M. A., & de Oliveira, P. S. R. (2011). Produção de forragem, características estruturais e eficiência de utilização do nitrogênio em forrageiras tropicais sob adubação nitrogenada. Semina: Ciências Agrárias, 32(4), 1637-1647. doi: 10.5433/1679-0359.2011v32n4p1637.

Cruz, P., Duru, M., Therond, O., Theau, J. P., Ducourtieux, C., Jouany, C., & Ansquer, P. (2002). Une nouvelle approche pour caractériser les prairies naturelles et leur valeur d'usage. Fourrages, 172(2002), 335-354.

Da Silva, S. C., & Sbrissia, A. F. (2010). Análise de componentes principais entre características morfogênicas e estruturais em capim-marandu sob lotação contínua. Ciência Rural 40(3): 690-693. doi: 10.1590/S0103-84782010000300034.

Duchini, P. G., Guzatti, G. C., Echeverria, J. R., Américo, L. F., & Sbrissia, A. F. (2018). Experimental evidence that the perennial grass persistence pathway is linked to plant growth strategy. Plos one, 13(11), e020736. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0207360.

Duchini, P. G., Guzatti, G. C., Ribeiro Filho, H. M. N., & Sbrissia, A. F. (2013). Tiller size/density compensation in temperate climate grasses grown in monoculture or in intercropping systems under intermittent grazing. Grass and Forage Science, 69(4), 655-665. doi: 10.1111/gfs.12095.

Euclides, V. P. B., Macedo, M. C. M., do Valle, C. B., Barbosa, R. A., & Gonçalves, W. V. (2008). Produção de forragem e características da estrutura do dossel de cultivares de Brachiaria brizantha sob pastejo. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 43(12), 1805-1812. doi: 10.1590/S0100-204X2008001200023.

Euclides, V. P. B., Montagner, D. B., Barbosa, R. A., Valle, C. B. D., & Nantes, N. N. (2016). Animal performance and sward characteristics of two cultivars of Brachiaria brizantha (BRS Paiaguás and BRS Piatã). Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 45(3), 85-92. doi: 10.1590/S1806-92902016000300001.

Fernandes, P. B., Barbosa, R. A., de Oliveira, R. T., de Oliveira, C. V. V., & de Medeiros-Neto, C. (2020). Defoliation dynamics of Brachiaria brizantha pastures with distinct structural characteristics. Bioscience Journal, 31(1), 203-211. doi: 10.14393/BJ-v36n1a2020-42211.

Ferreira, E. B., Cavalcanti, P. P., & Nogueira, D. A. (2014). ExpDes: an R Package for ANOVA and experimental designs. Applied Mathematics, 5(19), 2952–2958. doi: 10.4236/am.2014.519280.

Fonseca, L., Carvalho, P. D. F., Mezzalira, J. C., Bremm, C., Galli, J. R., & Gregorini, P. (2013). Effect of sward surface height and level of herbage depletion on bite features of cattle grazing Sorghum bicolor swards. Journal of animal Science, 91(9), 4357-4365. doi: 10.2527/jas2012-5602.

Garcez, T. B., & Monteiro, F. A. (2016). Nitrogen use of 'Panicum' and 'Brachiaria' cultivars vary with nitrogen supply: II Nitrogen use efficiency rankings and partition. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 10(5), 622-631. doi: 10.21475/ajcs.2016.10.05.p6853B.

Gross, K., Cardinale, B. J., Fox, J. W., Gonzalez, A., Loreau, M., Wayne Polley, H., ... & van Ruijven, J. (2013). Species Richness and the Temporal Stability of Biomass Production: A New Analysis of Recent Biodiversity Experiments. The American Naturalist, 183(1), 1-12. doi: doi.org/10.1086/673915.

Heitschmidt, R. K., BRISKEt, D. D., & Price, D. L. (1990). Pattern of interspecific tiller defoliation in a mixed‐grass prairie grazed by cattle. Grass and Forage Science, 45(2), 215-222. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2494.1990.tb02201.x.

Hodgkinson, K. C. (1980). Frequency and extent of defoliation of herbaceous plants by sheep in a foothill range community in northern Utah. Journal of Range Management, 33(3), 164-169. doi: 10.2307/3898276.

Hodgson, J. (1966). The frequency of defoliation of individual tillers in a set stocked sward. Journal of the British Grassland Society, 21(4), 258-263. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2494.1966.tb00483.x.

Jacobs, A. A. A., Scheper, J. A., Benvenutti, M. A., Gordon, I. J., Poppi, D. P., & Elgersma, A. (2013). Gradients in fracture force and grazing resistance across canopy layers in seven tropical grass species. Grass and Forage Science, 68(2), 278–287. 10.1111/j.1365-2494.2012.00900.x.

Lemaire, G., Da Silva, S. C., Agnusdei, M., Wade, M., & Hodgson, J. (2009). Interactions between leaf lifespan and defoliation frequency in temperate and tropical pastures: a review. Grass and Forage Science, 64(4), 341–353. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2494.2009.00707.x.

Mazzanti, A., Lemaire, G., Gastal, F. (1994). The effect of nitrogen fertilization upon the herbage production of tall fescue swards continuously grazed by sheep. 1. Herbage growth dynamics. Grass and Forage Science 49(2): 111–120. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2494.1994.tb01983.x.

Nakao, A. H., Andreotti, M., Soares, D. D. A., Modesto, V. C., & Dickmann, L. (2018). Intercropping Urochloa brizantha and sorghum inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense for silage. Revista Ciência Agronômica, 49(3), 501-511. doi: 10.5935/1806-6690.20180057.

Oliveira, C. V. V., Barbosa, R. A., Oliveira, R. T., Almeida, E. M., Paludo, F., Lima, J. S. & Fernandes, P. B (2020). The tissue flow in Brachiaria brizantha pasture under intermittent

stocking. Journal of Agricultural Studies, 8(1), 9 17. doi: doi:10.5296/jas.v8i1.15441

Oliveira, R. T., Barbosa, R. A., Oliveira, C. V. V. & Fernandes, P. B. (2019). Multivariada da biomassa de forragem e valor nutritivo em pastos de Brachiaria brizantha. Colloquium Agrariae, 15(4), 107-113. doi: 10.5747/ca.2019.v15.n4.a317.

Portela, J. N., Pedreira, C. G. S. & Braga, G.J. (2011). Demografia e densidade de perfilhos de capim‑braquiária sob pastejo em lotação intermitente. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 46(3), 315-322. doi: 10.1590/S0100-204X2011000300013.

Roca-Fernández, A. I., Peyraud, J.L., Delaby, L. & Delagarde, R. (2016). Pasture intake and milk production of dairy cows rotationally grazing on multi-species swards. Animal, 10(9), 1448-1456. doi: 10.1017/S1751731116000331.

Rodrigues, C. S., Nascimento Júnior, D. D., Detmann, E., Da Silva, S. C., Sousa, B. M. D. L. & Silveira M. C. T. D. (2012). Functional clusters of tropical forage grasses. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 41(), 1385-1393. doi: 10.1590/S1516-35982012000600010.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v9i4.2595

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Base de Dados e Indexadores: Base, Diadorim, Sumarios.org, DOI Crossref, Dialnet, Scholar Google, Redib, Doaj, Latindex, Redalyc, Portal de Periódicos CAPES

Research, Society and Development - ISSN 2525-3409

Licença Creative Commons
Este obra está licenciado com uma Licença Creative Commons Atribuição 4.0 Internacional

Rua Irmã Ivone Drumond, 200 - Distrito Industrial II, Itabira - MG, 35903-087 (Brasil) 
E-mail: rsd.articles@gmail.com
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Research-Society-and-Development-563420457493356