Association between oral hygiene and oral health-related quality of life of pregnant women

Paola do Couto Retori, Jessica Klöckner Knorst, Gabriela Bohrer Bolsson, Cristiane Medianeira Savian, Maísa Casarin, Bianca Zimmerman Santos


Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the association between oral hygiene habits and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of pregnant women. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted with a randomized sample of 100 pregnant women in a municipality in southern Brazil. OHRQoL was assessed using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) questionnaire. Demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral factors were collected through a structured interview. Clinical variables were obtained through examinations (gingivitis, periodontitis and dental caries). The association between predictor variables and OHIP-14 scores was evaluated using Poisson Regression models. Results are presented as Rate Ratio (RR) and a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Results: The mean age of the sample was 24 years. The average total OHIP-14 scores were 11.54 [standard deviation (SD) 8.68]. Non-white pregnant women reported a worse OHRQoL compared with white women (RR 1.37; 95% CI 1.22-1.55). In addition, tooth brushing frequency > 2 times a day was a protective factor against negative impacts on OHRQoL compared with tooth brushing of ≤ 2 times a day (RR 0.80; 95% CI 0.70-0.92). Conclusions: Non-white women had greater impacts on OHRQoL. In addition, pregnant women who brushed their teeth >2 times a day had better OHRQoL. These findings are useful in planning strategies for improving health conditions as well as the OHRQoL of pregnant women.


quality of life; oral health; oral hygiene; pregnant.


Acharya, S., Bhat, P. V., & Acharya, S. (2009). Factors affecting oral health‐related quality of life among pregnant women. International journal of dental hygiene, 7(2), 102-107.

American Dental Association (ADA). (1998) Acceptance Program Guidelines Toothbrushes.

Armitage, G. C. (2013). Bi‐directional relationship between pregnancy and periodontal disease. Periodontology 2000, 61(1), 160-176.

Baker, S. R. (2007). Testing a conceptual model of oral health: a structural equation modeling approach. Journal of dental research, 86(8), 708-712.

Bastiani, C., Cota, A. L. S., Provenzano, M. G. A., Fracasso, M. D. L. C., Honório, H. M., & Rios, D. (2010). Conhecimento das gestantes sobre alterações bucais e tratamento odontológico durante a gravidez. Odontologia Clínico-Científica (Online), 9(2), 155-160.

BRASIL. Ministério da Saúde. (2010). Portaria Nº tal de 24 de junho de 2010. Institui, no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saúde SUS – a Rede Cegonha. Brasília, 24 de junho de 2010.

de Oliveira, B. H., & Nadanovsky, P. (2005). Psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Oral Health Impact Profile–short form. Community dentistry and oral epidemiology, 33(4), 307-314.

Drumond-Santana, T., Costa, F. O., Zenóbio, E. G., Soares, R. V., & Santana, T. D. (2007). Impacto da doença periodontal na qualidade de vida de indivíduos diabéticos dentados. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 23, 637-644.

Eke, P. I., Page, R. C., Wei, L., Thornton‐Evans, G., & Genco, R. J. (2012). Update of the case definitions for population‐based surveillance of periodontitis. Journal of periodontology, 83(12), 1449-1454.

Gadbury‐Amyot, C. C., Austin, K. S., & Simmer‐Beck, M. (2018). A review of the oral health‐related quality of life (OHRQL) model for dental hygiene: Eighteen years later. International journal of dental hygiene, 16(2), 267-278.

Hashim, R. (2012). Self‐reported oral health, oral hygiene habits and dental service utilization among pregnant women in United Arab Emirates. International journal of dental hygiene, 10(2), 142-146.

Ismail, A. I., Tellez, M., Pitts, N. B., Ekstrand, K. R., Ricketts, D., Longbottom, C., ... & Featherstone, J. D. (2013). Caries management pathways preserve dental tissues and promote oral health. Community dentistry and oral epidemiology, 41(1), e12-e40.

Kateeb, E., & Momany, E. (2018). Factors related to high dental caries experience in Palestinian pregnant women in the Jerusalem governorate: a cross-sectional study. The Lancet, 391, S11.

Lamarca, G. A., do C Leal, M., Leao, A. T., Sheiham, A., & Vettore, M. V. (2012). Oral health related quality of life in pregnant and post partum women in two social network domains; predominantly home-based and work-based networks. Health and quality of life outcomes, 10(1), 5.

Lamarca, G. A., Leal, M. D. C., Leao, A. T., Sheiham, A., & Vettore, M. V. (2014). The different roles of neighbourhood and individual social capital on oral health–related quality of life during pregnancy and postpartum: a multilevel analysis. Community dentistry and oral epidemiology, 42(2), 139-150.

Lawrence, H. P., Cidro, J., Isaac-Mann, S., Peressini, S., Maar, M., Schroth, R. J., ... & Jamieson, L. (2016). Racism and oral health outcomes among pregnant Canadian Aboriginal women. Journal of health care for the poor and underserved, 27(1), 178-206.

Mannem, S., & Chava, V. K. (2011). The relationship between maternal periodontitis and preterm low birth weight: A case-control study. Contemporary clinical dentistry, 2(2), 88.

Martínez-Pabón, M. C., Martínez Delgado, C. M., López-Palacio, A. M., Patiño-Gómez, L. M., & Arango-Pérez, E. A. (2014). Características fisicoquímicas y microbiológicas de la saliva durante y después del embarazo. Revista de Salud Pública, 16, 115-125.

Miller, A. P., Kameka, M., & Young-Whiting, C. (2012). The effects of an oral health intervention on caregivers of Head Start children. Journal of National Black Nurses' Association: JNBNA, 23(1), 52-58.

Moimaz, S. A. S., Rocha, N. B., Saliba, O., & Garbin, C. A. S. (2007). O acesso de gestantes ao tratamento odontológico. Rev odontol univ cid Sao Paulo, 19(1), 39-45.

Moimaz, S. A. S., Saliba, O., Santos, K. T. D., Queiroz, A. P. D. G., & Garbin, C. A. S. (2011). Prevalência de cárie dentária em gestantes atendidas no sistema único de saúde em município paulista. Revista Odontológica de Araçatuba, 44-48.

Moimaz, S. A., Rocha, N. B., Garbin, A. J., Garbin, C. A., & Saliba, O. (2016). Influence of oral health on quality of life in pregnant women. Acta odontologica latinoamericana: AOL, 29(2), 186-193.

Nascimento, É. P., Andrade, F. S., Costa, A. M. D. D., & de Souza Terra, F. (2012). Gestantes frente ao tratamento odontológico. Revista Brasileira de Odontologia, 69(1), 125.

Papaioannou, W., Oulis, C. J., Latsou, D., & Yfantopoulos, J. (2011). Oral health-related quality of life of greek adults: a cross-sectional study. International journal of dentistry, 2011.

Pereira, P. K., & Lovisi, G. M. (2008). Prevalência da depressão gestacional e fatores associados. Archives of Clinical Psychiatry, 35(4), 144-153.

Rakchanok, N., Amporn, D., Yoshida, Y., Harun-Or-Rashid, M. D., & Sakamoto, J. (2010). Dental caries and gingivitis among pregnant and non-pregnant women in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Nagoya J Med Sci, 72(1-2), 43-50.

Reis, D. M., Pitta, D. R., Ferreira, H. M. B., Jesus, M. C. P. D., Moraes, M. E. L. D., & Soares, M. G. (2010). Educação em saúde como estratégia de promoção de saúde bucal em gestantes. Ciência & Saúde Coletiva, 15, 269-276.

Riggs, E., Slack‐Smith, L., Yelland, J., Chadwick, B., Robertson, L., & Kilpatrick, N. (2016). Interventions with pregnant women and new mothers for preventing caries in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (4).

Rocha, J. S., Arima, L. Y., Werneck, R. I., Moyses, S. J., & Baldani, M. H. (2018). Determinants of dental care attendance during pregnancy: a systematic review. Caries research, 52(1-2), 139-152.

Sischo, L., & Broder, H. L. (2011). Oral health-related quality of life: what, why, how, and future implications. Journal of dental research, 90(11), 1264-1270.

World Health Organization–WHO. (1997). Oral health surveys, basic methods. Geneva: World Health Organization



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Base de Dados e Indexadores: Base, Diadorim,, DOI Crossref, Dialnet, Scholar Google, Redib, Doaj, Latindex, Redalyc, Portal de Periódicos CAPES

Research, Society and Development - ISSN 2525-3409

Licença Creative Commons
Este obra está licenciado com uma Licença Creative Commons Atribuição 4.0 Internacional

Rua Irmã Ivone Drumond, 200 - Distrito Industrial II, Itabira - MG, 35903-087 (Brasil)