The Illegal Migration Experiences of Returnees to Omo Nada District, Jimma Zone, Oromia National Regional State, South West Ethiopia

Gudina Abashula Fojo, Carol Alalis

Abstract


Despite the fact that the illegal migration experiences of the returnees are important to design effective programs to reintegrate them into the community, there is scanty of information for the returnees to Omo Nada district.  The purpose of this study is to investigate the physical, economic and social abuse and exploitation faced by the returnees en route and in the place of destination. To this end, in-depth interviews, key informant interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken to collect qualitative data required for the study. The data was transcribed and analyzed thematically.  The results of the findings showed that the migrants were physically exhausted en route with hunger and thirst, subjected to physical abuse such as insults, beating, slapping, kicking, and bodily burn from the smugglers.  Injuries inflicted included bodily wounds, broken limbs and ribs. In addition to the physical abuse, the smugglers and traffickers robbed, and exploited migrants economically charging them for extra services at different transit points. This in turn made the migrants ended in debt bondage. Women became subject to sexual abuse by smugglers and by employers. The abuse continued in the country of destination by employers themselves. Economic exploitation took the form of long working hours with little rest, difficult workloads, reduced pay or wages withheld altogether. Punishment was particularly harsh for those with few or no skills. In addition, the situation deprived the study participants from getting sufficient or healthy food and theircommunication with their families left behind in the home country was restricted.  Women, usually domestic workers, had been subject to sexual abuse by employers and their families.


Keywords


illegal migration; returnees; abuse, exploitation Omo Nada

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdulraheem, S. & Oladipo, A.R. (2010).‛Trafficking in women and children: A hidden health and social problem in Nigeria’. International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology 2(3): 34-39.

Bryant-Davis, T.; Tillman S.; Smith K. (2010). Struggling to survive: Sexual assault, poverty and mental health outcomes of African American women. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 80(1): 61-70. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-0025.2010.01007.x

Calandruccio, G.(2005). ‘A Review of recent research on human trafficking in the Middle East’. International Migration 43(1): 267-299.

Cassarino, J. (2008). The conditions of modern return migrants. International Journal on Multicultural Societies 10(2): 95-105. www.unesco.org/shs/ijims/vol10/issue2/intro

Creswell, W. (2009). Research design: quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods approaches.3rd edition. Los Angeles, London, New Delhi, Singapore. Sage.

Danish Refuge Council and the Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat. (2012). Desperate choices: Conditions, risks and protection failures affecting Ethiopian migrants in Yemen. Nairobi

Lincoln, YS. & Guba, EG. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Sage, Newbury Park.

Enaikele, MD & Olutayo, AO. (2011). ‘Human trafficking in Nigeria: Implication for human immune deficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome’ (HIV/AIDS) pandemic. International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology 3(11):416-422.

Human Smuggling and Trafficking Centre. (2006). Fact sheet: Distinction between human smuggling and human trafficking. Available at HSTC@ state. Gov. Accessed on 27/12/2014.

International Organization for Migration.(2003). Irregular migration. Available at https://www.google.com/?gws_rd=ssl#q=IOM+definition+of+illegal+migration+pdf.Accessed on 25/10/2014.

International Council on Human Rights Policy. (2010). Irregular migration, migrant smuggling and human rights: Towards Coherence. Geneva, Switzerland.

International Organization for Migration. (2011). Guidelines for assisting victims of human trafficking in East Africa Region. Geneva.

Jayagupta, R. (2009). The Thai Government repatriation and reintegration programs: Responding to trafficked female commercial sex workers from the Greater Mekong Sub region. International Migration, 47, 227-253. doi:10.1111= j.1468-2435.2008.00498.x

Lyneham, S. (2014). Recovery, return and reintegration of Indonesian victims of human trafficking. Australian Institute of Criminology. Trends and issues in crime and criminal justice no. 483.[SI:sn].

Morrow, S. (2002). ‘Quality and trustworthiness in qualitative research in counselling psychology’. Journal of counselling Psychology 52(2):250-260. DOI: 10.1037/0022-0167.52.2.25

Muco, E. (2013). ‘Trafficking in human beings: Paradigms of successful reintegration into society. Albanian case’. European Scientific Journal 9(4): 1857-7881.

Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat (RMMS). (2014). The letter of law: Regular and irregular migration in Saudi Arabia in context of rapid change . Nairobi.

United States of America Department of State. (2015). Trafficking in persons report.[SI].

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crimes. (2008). An introduction to human trafficking: Vulnerability, impact and action. Vienna.

United States os America Department of state. (2012).Trafficking in persons report 2012-Ethiopia. Available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/4fe30ccb32.html . Accessed on 12/8/2013

United States of America, Department of State. 2016. Trafficking in person report. Washington.

The International Organization for Migration. (2015). Human trafficking and smuggling of migrants in the context of mixed migration flows: state play in the IGAD region. Addis Ababa.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v8i10.1243

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Base de Dados e Indexadores: Base, Diadorim, Sumarios.org, DOI Crossref, Dialnet, Scholar Google, Redib, Doaj, Latindex, Redalyc, Portal de Periódicos CAPES

Research, Society and Development - ISSN 2525-3409

Licença Creative Commons
Este obra está licenciado com uma Licença Creative Commons Atribuição 4.0 Internacional

Rua Irmã Ivone Drumond, 200 - Distrito Industrial II, Itabira - MG, 35903-087 (Brasil) 
E-mail: rsd.articles@gmail.com
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Research-Society-and-Development-563420457493356